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Citations Collection

The Citations Collection presents one-of-one visual NFTs to honor important publications in computer science.

No more than 12 will be minted each year.

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— 2022 —

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— 2021 —

Baytaş et al. (2022) — Tribute to Virgil Abloh

Baytaş et al. (2022) — Tribute to Virgil Abloh

Baytaş, M. A., Cappellaro, A., & Fernaeus, Y. (2022). Stakeholders and Value in the NFT Ecosystem: Towards a Multi-disciplinary Understanding of the NFT Phenomenon. In Extended Abstracts of the 2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI EA ‘22).

Non-fungible tokens (NFTs) have been a defining trend for design, technology, and business in 2021. Vis-à-vis significant market movements, the value, legitimacy, and utility of NFTs are disputed: proponents highlight revolutionary economic and cultural potentials of an open, secure, and immutable ownership database, while opponents are displeased by the environmental issues and abundant wrongdoing in the ecosystem. In either case, NFTs are an important technological, cultural, and economic phenomenon that signifies important developments in technological and social systems.

Based on open data mined from the social new website Hacker News, Baytaş et al. present a first-of-its-kind data-backed model of stakeholders, relations, and value flows in the NFT ecosystem, documenting the technological, cultural, and economic aspects of the phenomenon in tandem.

The graphic design on this unique NFT is crafted as a tribute to the prolific multi-disciplinary designer Virgil Abloh, who passed away in 2021 during the height of the NFT boom. Color, typography, and layout elements emulate Abloh's social media posts announcing his academic lectures on contemporary design theory.

(Proceeds from initial and future sales of this NFT will be used to cover part of the costs of publishing the research paper at the 2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, as well as future research and design experiments by the first author and associates.)

Author

Mehmet Aydın Baytaş

Author

Ylva Fernaeus

Author

Amos Cappellaro

Decade

2020s

Institution

Weatherlight Labs

Institution

Chalmers University of Technology

Institution

KTH Royal Institute of Technology

Typeset in

Helvetica

Year

2022

Year Created

2022

 

Cerf and Kahn (1974)

Cerf and Kahn (1974)

Cerf, V. G., & Kahn, R. E. (1974). A Protocol for Packet Network Intercommunication. IEEE Transactions on Communications,
22(5) 637–648.

Cerf and Kahn’s proposal describes a transmission control program (TCP) for sharing data between computers connected via an “internetwork”.

The protocol was later developed into a modular architecture called TCP/IP. The term “internetwork” is better known today by its shorthand: “internet”.

Citation typeset in King's Caslon. Figure typeset in Neue Haas Grotesk.

Author

Vint Cerf

Author

Bob Kahn

Decade

1970s

Institution

Stanford University

Institution

Department of Defense

Journal

IEEE Transactions on Communication

Typeset in

King's Caslon

Typeset in

Neue Haas Grotesk

Year

1974

Year Created

2021

 

Olukotun et al. (1996)

Olukotun et al. (1996)

Olukotun, K., Nayfeh, B. A., Hammond, L., Wilson, K., & Chang, K. (1996). The Case for a Single-Chip Multiprocessor. In Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems (ASPLOS VII), 2–11.

A multi-core processor contains multiple separate processing units, packaged on the same integrated circuit. This provides a significant performance advantage over single-core designs, when executing programs that use parallel computing techniques such as multithreading.

Pioneered by Kunle Olukotun and colleagues from Stanford in the mid-1990s, multi-core designs have since become the standard for general-purpose consumer devices as well as specific applications that include graphics, networking, and signal processing.

Citation typeset in King's Caslon. Figure typeset in Neue Haas Grotesk.

Author

Kunle Olukotun

Author

Basem Nayfeh

Author

Lance Hammond

Author

Ken Wilson

Author

Kunyung Chang

Conference

ASPLOS

Decade

1990s

Institution

Stanford University

Typeset in

Neue Haas Grotesk

Typeset in

King's Caslon

Year

1996

Year Created

2021

 

Buterin (2013)

Buterin (2013)

Buterin, V. (2013). A Next-Generation Smart Contract and Decentralized Application Platform.

17-year-old Vitaly Dmitriyevich "Vitalik" Buterin co-founded Bitcoin Magazine in 2011 after learning about the cryptocurrency from his father, a computer scientist. Three years later, with support from the Thiel Fellowship, Buterin dropped out of the University of Waterloo to work on Ethereum full-time.

Buterin initially proposed to augment Bitcoin with the ability to run a programming language, turning it into a decentralized general-purpose computer. The idea failed to gather support from the Bitcoin community, and Ethereum was born as a new platform.

Citation typeset in King's Caslon. Figure typeset in Verdana and Sometype Mono.

Author

Vitalik Buterin

Decade

2010s

Typeset in

King's Caslon

Typeset in

Sometype Mono

Typeset in

Verdana

Year

2013

Year Created

2021

 

Russell (1978)

Russell (1978)

Russell, R. M. (1978). The CRAY-1 Computer System. Communications of the ACM, 21(1), 63–72.

The CRAY-1 was a highly successful supercomputer designed by Seymour Cray in the 1970s. The vector processor design that underpinned it and its successors radically outperformed competitors until the 1990s. Cray Research expected to sell a dozen machines when they brought it to market, and priced them accordingly. They ended up selling over 80 units for more than $5M each.

The article that situates a description of the technology and evolution of CRAY-1 in computer science literature was authored by Richard M. Russell, whose responsibility at Cray Research was marketing and sales.

Typeset in King's Caslon.

Author

Richard M. Russell

Decade

1970s

Institution

Cray Research

Journal

Communications of the ACM

Typeset in

King's Caslon

Year

1978

Year Created

2021

 

Kay and Goldberg (1977)

Kay and Goldberg (1977)

Kay, A., & Goldberg, A. (1977). Personal Dynamic Media. Computer, 10(3), 31–41.

Alan Kay and Adele Goldberg envisioned a design for a “dynamic medium the size of a notebook” – laptop and tablet computers.

At the time, technologies like LCD displays and lithium-ion batteries were not yet available. Despite the absence of hardware on which their vision could be built, the team at Xerox PARC made significant progress in building the software components which could one day power diverse creative applications. The paper presents a variety of prototypes for drawing, animation, music, simulation, architecture, and more.

Typeset in King's Caslon.

Author

Alan Kay

Author

Adele Goldberg

Decade

1970s

Institution

Xerox PARC

Journal

Computer

Typeset in

King's Caslon

Year

1977

Year Created

2021

 

Ishii and Ullmer (1997)

Ishii and Ullmer (1997)

Ishii, H., & Ullmer, B. (1997). Tangible Bits: Towards Seamless Interfaces Between People, Bits and Atoms. In Proceedings of the ACM SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
 (CHI '97), 234–241.

Tangible user interfaces are designs where people interact with digital information through physical artifacts.

The 1997 CHI paper by Hiroshi Ishii and Brygg Ullmer of the MIT Media Lab lays out the vision, technologies, and examples for TUIs, building on three key concepts: interactive surfaces, graspable physical objects, and ambient media for background awareness.

Typeset in King's Caslon.

Author

Hiroshi Ishii

Author

Brygg Ullmer

Conference

CHI

Decade

1990s

Institution

MIT Media Lab

Typeset in

King's Caslon

Year

1997

Year Created

2021

 

Rumelhart et al. (1986)

Rumelhart et al. (1986)

Rumelhart, D. E., Hinton, G. E.,
& Williams, R. J. (1986). Learning Representations by 
Back-propagating Errors. Nature, 323, 533-536.

Backpropagation is an algorithm that is widely used in machine learning to train neural networks.

Rumelhart, Hinton, and Williams coined the term and described the algorithm with two publications in 1986, but the mathematics of the technique were independently rediscovered many times, with predecessors dating back to the 1960s.

Neural networks became popular in the 2010s, as GPU hardware – better-suited than CPUs to run backpropagation – became powerful and cheap. What followed was an abundance of applications in speech recognition, machine vision, natural language processing, and more; reviving excitement about machine learning and artificial intelligence.

Citation typeset in King's Caslon. Figure typeset in Neue Haas Grotesk.

Author

Geoffrey Hinton

Author

David Rumelhart

Author

Ronald J. Williams

Decade

1980s

Institution

Carnegie Mellon University

Institution

UCSD

Journal

Nature

Typeset in

Neue Haas Grotesk

Typeset in

King's Caslon

Year

1986

Year Created

2021

 

Sutherland (1968)

Sutherland (1968)

Sutherland, I. E. (1968). A Head-mounted Three Dimensional Display. In Proceedings of the December 9–11, 1968,
 Fall Joint Computer Conference, Part I 
(AFIPS '68 (Fall, Part I)), 757–764.

Ivan Sutherland's 1968 paper documents a design for a head-mounted display that renders images which respond to the viewer's head movements: the world's first virtual reality system.

Published during Sutherland’s tenure at the University of Utah, the AFIPS paper represents many years of work by Sutherland and colleagues at MIT and Harvard.

Citation typeset in King's Caslon. Figure typeset in Neue Haas Grotesk.

Author

Ivan Sutherland

Conference

AFIPS

Decade

1960s

Institution

University of Utah

Institution

Harvard University

Institution

MIT

Typeset in

Neue Haas Grotesk

Typeset in

King's Caslon

Year

1968

Year Created

2021

 

Nakamoto (2008)

Nakamoto (2008)

Nakamoto, S. (2008). Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic
 Cash System.

The mysterious Satoshi Nakamoto began working on the code for bitcoin in 2007. The domain bitcoin.org was registered and a website published in August 2008. On October 31, Nakamoto posted the white paper on a cryptography mailing list, describing the implementation of a digital cryptocurrency.

Citation typeset in King's Caslon. Figure typeset in Neue Haas Grotesk.

Author

Satoshi Nakamoto

Decade

2000s

Typeset in

Neue Haas Grotesk

Typeset in

King's Caslon

Year

2008

Year Created

2021

 

Zadeh (1965)

Zadeh (1965)

Zadeh, L. A. (1965). Fuzzy Sets. Information and Control, 8(3), 338–353.

Zadeh's theory of fuzzy sets extends the classical notion of a set in mathematics.

In classical set theory, the membership of elements in a set is defined in binary terms: an element either belongs or does not belong to the set. Fuzzy set theory allows for gradual membership of a set's elements, described mathematically with membership function valued in the range [0, 1].

Introduced by Zadeh and other scholars in the 1960s, fuzzy set theory has a wide range of practical applications, including but not limited to pattern recognition, robotics, bioinformatics, and social sciences.

Citation typeset in King's Caslon. Figure typeset in IBM Plex Sans.

Author

Lotfi A. Zadeh

Decade

1960s

Institution

UC Berkeley

Journal

Information and Control

Typeset in

IBM Plex Sans

Typeset in

King's Caslon

Year

1965

Year Created

2021

 

McCarthy et al. (1955)

McCarthy et al. (1955)

McCarthy, J., Minsky, M. L., Rochester, N., & Shannon, C. E. (1955). A Proposal for the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence.

The Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence was a summer workshop – essentially an extended brainstorming session – held in 1956. It is considered the founding event of artificial intelligence as a field.

John McCarthy, then a young Assistant Professor of Mathematics at Dartmouth College, was interested in organizing a gathering of scholars to clarify and develop ideas about thinking machines. In 1955, McCarthy requested funding for a summer seminar at Dartmouth from the Rockefeller Foundation. The formal proposal, signed by McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Nathaniel Rochester, and Claude Shannon, is credited with introducing the term "artificial intelligence".

Citation typeset in King's Caslon. Figure typeset in Century Expanded.

Author

Marvin Minsky

Author

Nathaniel Rochester

Author

Claude Shannon

Author

John McCarthy

Decade

1950s

Institution

Dartmouth College

Institution

IBM

Institution

Bell Labs

Institution

Harvard University

Typeset in

Century Expanded

Typeset in

King's Caslon

Year

1955

Year Created

2021

 

Turing (1950)

Turing (1950)

Turing, A. M. (1950). Computing Machinery and Intelligence. Mind, 59(236), 433–460.

Alan Turing's seminal work on artificial intelligence considers the question: "Can machines think?"

According to Turing, as neither "machine" nor "thinking" can be defined unambiguously, it is apt to replace the question with another that is expressed in unambiguous terms. Hence, Turing suggests another question: Can the machine win an "Imitation Game" by impersonating a human, acting in a manner that is indistinguishable from a thinking being?

Typeset in King's Caslon.

Author

Alan Turing

Decade

1950s

Institution

University of Manchester

Journal

Mind

Typeset in

King's Caslon

Year

1950

Year Created

2021